Independent Consultant. My expertise lies in an effective scientific method of acquiring talent, aligning team members with organizational needs, and identifying development opportunities.
The answer to your first question is pretty simple. Basically you are talking about doing an exclusive deal on a (hopefully pattented) item, or just slapping another companies logo on an item which would be a custom label or private label. White label usually refers to SaaS.
Cases are all around you. This just happened to me at Walmart. The Ragu brand and GreatValue brand were right next to each other and were in the same jars. Ragu more than likely did a private label spaghetti sauce for Walmart's GreatValue brand. You can also Google - "top private label brands" or other variations of this search phrase.